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Image of two football players at stadium

 FOUNDATION     AGE    6 TO 11

the foundation phase of development is multilateral phase that builds a foundation on which complex motor abilities can be developed .

the key implications to coaches working with this age group are summarised below .

  1. Basic skills should be developed 
  2. short duration , immediate energy system activities should be planned with endurance being developed through play and games.
  3. use slow progression in hopping and jumping activities with strenght training being limited  to technique development .
  4. specific activities and games should emphasis co-ordination and body awarness , integrating gymnastic and athletic activities into the programme.



during this phase of developement athletic formation begins to take place with the body and its capacities developing rapidly.

the key implicatios to coaches working with this age group are summerised below ,

  1. Monitor the training carefuly and begin to individualise the content of training to ensure adaptation .
  2. Remember that chronological  age may not be the most appropriate way to group players .
  3. With the improuvement of fine motor movement all basic technical skills should be mastered .
  4. players should learn how to train during this phase , including physical , technical ,tactical and phsycological including  (warm -up, cool down, nutrition,rest,recovery etc.)
  5. some previously learned skills need refinement as limb growth will impact in technique.
  6. the increase in body mass requires a more structured aerobic training .only short duration anaerobic activities are recommended .
  7. Utilse the warm-up to further develop the central nervous system and develop speed .

PROFESSIONAL    AGE      17 TO 21 

the biggest changes in training occur during this phase of training , the exercises undertaken are aimed at high -performance development with the intensity and volum of work gradualy increasing .

The key implications to coaches working with this age group are summarised below.

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic systems become fully developed and can be trained for maximum output.
  2. strenght training can be maximised to improve overall strenght development and training of the nervous system training should be optimesed 
  3. learning how to compete  is important , incorporating all technical , tactical 

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